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تاريخ التسجيل : 20/01/2011
الموقع : http://www.egyedu.com/vb/forumdisplay.php?718-%C7%E1%CA%DA%E1%ED%E3-%C7%E1%CA

مُساهمةموضوع: لمعلمى اللغه الانجليزيه2   الخميس يناير 20, 2011 6:27 pm

? Average class size :
The number of students in classes divided by the number of classes. Because some teachers, such as reading specialists, have assignments outside the regular classroom, the average class size is usually larger than the pupil-teacher ratio.

? Average daily attendance (ADA) :
The total number of days of student attendance divided by the total number of days in the regular school year.


B
? Basic skills:
The fundamental skills needed to succeed in school and eventually in life. Most people think of basic skills as the ability to read, write, and compute. Others, however, would broaden the term to include such skills as the ability to use a computer, the ability to work cooperatively with others, or even the temperament to cope with continuous change.

?Behaviorism :
A theory suggesting that learning occurs when an environmental stimulus triggers a response or behavior. Based on classical conditioning theory, behaviorism applies to educational practices that reward performance behaviors to encourage repetition of those behaviors. Rote memorization and drill-and-practice instruction are supported by behaviorist theory.

?Behavior modification:
Use of an approach based on behavioral science to change a person's way of doing things?specifically, systematic use of rewards, and sometimes punishments, to shape students' classroom deportment. Such systems usually involve explicit objectives, elaborate record keeping, and visible tracking of progress.
Used especially in special education classes for behaviorally disturbed students, behavior modification is controversial. Opponents say it is impersonal and mechanistic, makes students dependent rather than independent (at least at first), and borders on cruelty. Advocates see it as scientifically based and effective.

? Benchmarks :
A detailed description of a specific level of student achievement expected of students at particular ages, grades, or developmental levels; academic goals set for each grade level.

? Bilingual education :
An in-school program for students whose first language is not English or who have limited English skills. Bilingual education provides English language development plus subject area instruction in the student's native language. The goal is for the child to gain knowledge and be literate in two languages.
?Bilingualism :
Is the ability to use two languages. However, defining bilingualism is problematic since individuals with varying bilingual characteristics may be classified as bilingual. There may exist distinctions between ability and use of a language; variation in proficiency across the four language dimensions (listening, speaking, reading and writing); differences in proficiency between the two languages; variation in proficiency due to the use of each language for different functions and purposes; and variation in language proficiency over time (Baker & Jones, 1998). People may become bilingual either by acquiring two languages at the same time in childhood or by learning a second language sometime after acquiring their first language.
? Biliteracy :
The ability to effectively communicate or understand thoughts and ideas through two languages' grammatical systems and vocabulary, using their written symbols .
? Block scheduling :
Instead of traditional 40- to 50-minute periods, block scheduling allows for periods of an hour or more so that teachers can accomplish more during a class session. It also allows for teamwork across subject areas in some schools.
?Bloom's taxonomy :
A classification of educational objectives developed in the 1950s by a group of researchers headed by Benjamin Bloom of the University of Chicago. Commonly refers to the objectives for the cognitive domain, which range from knowledge and comprehension (lowest) to synthesis and evaluation (highest). The taxonomy has been widely used by teachers to determine the focus of their instruction and is probably the original reference of the term higher-order thinking.

? Bond measure :
A method of borrowing used by school districts to pay for construction or renovation projects. A bond measure requires a 55 percent majority to pass. The principal and interest are repaid by local property owners through an increase in property taxes.

?Brainstorming
Typically used in writing, but is any activity where individuals general ideas related to a topic or task; done in either groups or individually with no restriction on quality of ideas. Once ideas are generation, they are they evaluated and a decision about which to pursue is made.


C
? Categorical aid :
Funds from the state or federal government granted to qualifying schools or districts for specific children with special needs, certain programs such as class size reduction, or special purposes such as transportation. In general, schools or districts must spend the money for the specific purpose. All districts receive categorical aid in varying amounts. This aid is in addition to the funding schools received for their general education program.

?Classroom climate :
The "feel" or tone of a classroom, indicated by the total environment, including especially the way teacher and students relate to one another. Some classrooms have a cold, impersonal, or even antagonistic, climate, while others are warm and friendly. Some are business-like and productive, others disorganized and inefficient.
?Classroom management :
The way a teacher organizes and administers routines to make classroom life as productive and satisfying as possible. What some people might describe narrowly as "discipline." For example, teachers with good classroom management clarify how various things (such as distribution of supplies and equipment) are to be done and may even begin the school year by having students practice the expected procedures.
? Class size reduction :
A state-funded program for kindergarten through third grade classes to ensure that there are no more than 20 students per teacher. A separate program supports some smaller classes for core subjects in ninth grade.
? Closed campus :
This usually indicates that the school has one point of entry and a sign-in procedure as safety measures. It also refers to a high school that does not allow students to leave the campus for lunch or does not allow students to come and go without permission during the school day.
? Code-switching:
The term used to describe any switch among languages in the course of a conversation, whether at the level of words, sentences or blocks of speech. Code-switching most often occurs when bilinguals are in the presence of other bilinguals who speak the same languages .
? Colloquialism:
A word, phrase, or form of pronunciation that is acceptable in casual conversation but not in formal, written communication. It is considered more acceptable than slang.
?Cognates
Cognates are words in the students' own language that have the same, or very similar, form as the target language words.

?Cognitive development :
The process, which begins at birth, of learning through sensory perception, memory, and observation. Children are born into cultures and backgrounds that affect what they learn as well as how they learn. Children from enriched environments (in which parents and caregivers read to and with them, teach them letters and numbers, and take them to plays and museums) come to school prepared to learn; children from impoverished or abusive backgrounds often lack most or all of these preschool advantages. To stimulate the cognitive development of such children, teachers use strategies such as placing learning into a meaningful context, providing situations in which students can be active participants, and combining general information with specific learning situations.
?Cognitive learning :
The mental processes involved in learning, such as remembering and understanding facts and ideas. Educators have always been interested in how people learn but are now becoming better informed about cognition from the work of cognitive psychologists, who in recent years have compiled a great deal of new information about thinking and learning .
?Cognitive Assessment:
The process of systematically gathering test scores and related data in order to make judgments about an individual's ability to perform various mental activities involved in the processing, acquisition, retention, conceptualization, and organization of sensory, perceptual, verbal, spatial, and psychomotor information .
?Collaborative learning or Cooperative learning:
An instructional approach in which students of varying abilities and interests work together in small groups to solve a problem, complete a project, or achieve a common goal.
? Cluster :
To place small groups of students together for instruction.

? Community college :
A two-year college, also referred to as a junior college. Anyone who is 18 years old or holds a high school diploma (or *****alent) is eligible to attend a community college.
? Community-based learning :
Students, faculty, administrators, and community members working together to create new learning opportunities within local communities but generally outside traditional learning institutions.
? Comparable growth :
Subgroups of students in a school must improve their scores on standardized tests. They are expected to achieve 80 percent of the predominant student group's target, which is known as comparable growth.

?Competency tests :
Tests created by a school district or state that students must pass before graduating. Sometimes called minimum competency tests, such tests are intended to ensure that graduates have reached minimal proficiency in basic skills. In recent years, some states have replaced minimum competency tests adopted in the 1970s or '80s with more demanding tests aligned with adopted curriculum standards.

? Comprehension :
Ability to find and construct meaning from texts.

?Comprehension approach
Use the text for comprehension purposes; set out to get an understanding of the text or dialogue .

?Computer assisted learning :
An instructional format where the computer supplements the instructions, exercises, information and/or feedback provided by an instructor.
?Computer-based learning:
An instructional format where the computer provides instructions, exercises, information and feedback in place of an instructor.
?Computer conferencing :
A format for holding discussions by participants in different places by connecting through computer networks to transmit messages that are either text, audio, and or visual. This can be asynchronous using email or a list server or synchronous using conferencing software.
?Computer-assisted instruction :
Educational programs delivered through the use of computers and educational software. As computers have become more common in schools, the term and its abbreviation, CAI, are used less frequently.
? Concept :
Concept refers to the meaning of a particular piece of language, usually grammar. Many grammatical items are used in different ways, they have different concepts.

? Conflict management :
A strategy that schools use to prevent and address behavior problems by using peer counselors, mediators, or a school curriculum or program. It usually includes a set of expectations for behavior.

?Connotation:
The impression that a word gives beyond its defined meaning.

? Content standards :
Standards that describe what students should know and be able to do in core academic subjects at each grade level.

?Context /Contextualized :
Context is a word for the situation in which language occurs naturally. Students will learn and remember better if the language is presented in an appropriate context.

?Constructed response :
Test items on which students must provide an answer (short answer, explanation of the process for determining the answer, etc.) in contrast with items (known as selected response or multiple-choice) on which students choose from among answers provided. Some psychometricians say that selected response items are preferable because they are scored by machine and the results are therefore more reliable. Others, however, believe constructed response items are a better test of what students can actually do.

?Constructivism :
An approach to teaching based on research about how people learn. Many researchers say that each individual "constructs" knowledge rather than receiving it from others. People disagree about how to achieve constructive learning, but many educators believe that students come to understand abstract concepts best through exploration, reasoning, and discussion.

?Continuous progress :
A system of education in which individuals or small groups of students go through a sequence of lessons at their own pace, rather than at the pace of the entire classroom group. Continuous progress has also been called individualized education or individualized instruction and is one version of mastery learning.

?Controlled practice :
A type of exercise that gives the students repeated opportunities to use recognize and/or manipulate a particular language point. Repetition is often a part of these activities. The aim is to develop accurate use of the form and fix it in the students' minds.
? Cooperative learning :
A teaching method in which students of differing abilities work together on an assignment. Each student has a specific responsibility within the group. Students complete assignments together and receive a common grade.
?Creationism :
The view that human beings were specifically created by God and did not evolve from other forms of animal life through the process of natural selection. Advocates of scientific creationism believe that the creationist view should be taught alongside evolution in science classes. Opponents argue that creationism is a religious, not a scientific, position. They insist that the only ideas that should be taught in science classes are those that are based on scientific evidence and that are subject to rigorous scientific scrutiny.
? Creative thinking :
Thought processes designed to encourage originality in the development and elaboration of original and diverse ideas.
? Criterion-referenced test :
A test that measures how well a student has learned a specific body of knowledge and skills. The goal is typically to have every student attain a passing mark, not to compare students to each other.

?Critical thinking :
Logical thinking based on sound evidence; the opposite of biased, sloppy thinking. Some people take the word critical to mean negative and faultfinding, but philosophers consider it to mean thinking that is skillful and responsible. A critical thinker can accurately and fairly explain a point of view that he does not agree with.

? Curriculum:
The courses of study offered by a school or district. California has developed a set of standards that are intended to guide curriculum and instruction. The final decisions about school curriculum are the responsibility of the local school board.

D
?Data-based decision making :
Analyzing existing sources of information (class and school attendance, grades, test scores) and other data (portfolios, surveys, interviews) to make decisions about the school. The process involves organizing and interpreting the data and creating action plans.

?Decentralization :
The deliberate reassignment of decision-making authority from states or districts to local schools based on the beliefs that people who are closest to a situation make better decisions and that people work hardest when implementing their own decisions. The primary vehicle for school decentralization in recent decades has been site-based management, under which decision-making authority has been delegated to local schools, often accompanied by a requirement that schools establish representative school councils.
?Deadline :
Final date for the submission of assignment or other required work.
?Deductive method :
The deductive method of teaching grammar is the academic and scholarly one which was devised in order to teach Latin and Greek. The teacher writes an example on the board or draws attention to example in the textbook. Then the underlying rule is explained. The whole approach is cognitive , with learners considering the rules and weighing their words .
?Deep learning :
Learning aimed at having students extract principles and underlying meanings in order to integrate them with previously acquired knowledge; contrast with surface learning.
?Democratic education :
Advocates of democratic education believe that students, if they are to acquire the skills, knowledge, and values they need to perform their roles as citizens in a democracy, should receive a type of education that actively engages them as citizens in their own schools and communities. For example, they believe that students should participate in the governance of the school and engage in service-learning activities in their local communities
?Democratic purposes of education :
Schools are expected to ensure that all children, regardless of family economic status or future occupation, acquire the skills, knowledge, and civic values they need to perform their roles as citizens in a democracy
?Detracking :
Reducing or eliminating grouping by ability, resulting in classes with students from all ability levels. The result of detracking is also called heterogeneous rather than homogeneous (or ability) grouping. Strictly speaking, tracking refers to students being lumped into groups for all their classes based on their general ability to learn.

? Developmental screening tests :
? Used to identify students who may have disabilities, sensory impairments (e.g., near-sightedness or reduced hearing), or behavioral and developmental disabilities.

?Developmentally appropriate education :
Curriculum and instruction that is in accord with the physical and mental development of the student. Developmentally appropriate education is especially important for young children because their physical and mental abilities change quickly and vary greatly from child to child.
?Diagnostic Test:
A test used to "diagnose" or analyze; that is, to locate an individual's specific areas of weakness or strength, to determine the nature of his weaknesses or deficiencies, and, wherever possible, to suggest their cause. Such a test yields measures of the components or subparts of some larger body of information or skill. Diagnostic achievement tests are most commonly prepared for the skill subjects.

? Differentiated instruction :
This is also referred to as "individualized" or "customized" instruction. The curriculum offers several different learning experiences within one lesson to meet students' varied needs or learning styles. For example, different teaching methods for students with learning disabilities.
?Direct instruction :
Instruction in which the teacher explains the intended purpose and presents the content in a clear, orderly way. Contrasts with inductive, discovery, or constructive teaching, in which students are led, by means of investigation or discussion, to develop their own ideas.

? Disaggregated data:
? The presentation of data broken into segments of the student population instead of the entire enrollment. Typical segments include students who are economically disadvantaged, from racial or ethnic minority groups, have disabilities, or have limited English fluency. Disaggregated data allows parents and teachers to see how each student group is performing in a school.

?Discovery learning :
Learning activities designed so that students discover facts and principles themselves rather than having them explained by a textbook or a teacher. These activities are used most often in science classes where, for example, students can directly observe effects of various substances on other substances and infer possible reasons.

? Distance education :
Any format of education provided to students who do not need to be physically present at an institution; previously materials were sent to students but now materials are provided via computer conferencing, video, Internet, and other electronic means.

?Distance learning :
Taking classes in locations other than the classroom or places where teachers present the lessons. Distance learning uses various forms of technology, especially television and computers, to provide educational materials and experiences to students. Small high schools may arrange for their students to take courses, such as those for advanced foreign language instruction, by television. Many colleges and universities broadcast credit courses for students who live in isolated locations or who for other reasons cannot attend classes on campus.

? Dropouts :
Students who leave high school before receiving a diploma. Because it is difficult to keep track of adolescents no longer in school, because students may re-enter schools and drop out again more than once, and because many students eventually get the *****alent of secondary education by means of GED tests.

?Dyslexia :
Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.

E
?Early childhood education :
The education of young children. Many educators think of early childhood education as including children ages 3 through 7. Recent research information about the brain development of infants is causing many specialists to think of this period of rapid learning as beginning at birth.

? Educational software :
Software designed to facilitate teaching and learning.
?E-learning :
Learning activities based on any electronic format.
?Electronic discussion board :
Computer discussion area where individuals can post messages and other individuals will respond at a later time.
? Electronic mail (E-mail):
A form of messages delivered over a network of communications computers; typically these messages are text but may include images and hyperlinks.

?English as a Second Language (ESL) :
Teaching English to non-English-speaking or limited-English-proficient (LEP) students to help them learn and succeed in schools. ESOL (English for Speakers of Other Languages) has generally the same meaning as ESL.

?English language learner (ELL) :
A student whose first language is other than English and who is in a special program for learning English (which may be bilingual education or English as a second language).
A student who is not proficient enough in the English language to succeed in the school's regular instructional programs and who qualifies for extra help.

? English Language Advisory Committee (ELAC):
Variations include "English Language Advisory Council," and "English Language Learner Advisory Committee/Council." The group consists of parents and school staff who work together to address the academic needs of students still learning English.

? Enrichment:
Additional courses outside those required for graduation.
?Environmental education :
According to the Environmental Education and Training Partnership (EETAP), environmental education "is a learning process that increases people's knowledge and awareness about the environment and associated challenges, develops the necessary skills and expertise to address the challenges, and fosters attitudes, motivations, and commitments to make informed decisions and take responsible action."
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